When this year’s Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the European Union (EU), the Swedish national TV channel SVT1 aired a segment on UCDP, and its report on EU performance in international conflicts, including an interview with Professor Peter Wallensteen. It was broadcast in the peak time 19.30 evening news December 10. Apart from the interview, the work of the A New Start for EU Peacemaking? Past Record and Future Potential concludes that there is a need for a new start for EU as a peacemaker. “In the documentation of EU engagement in international affairs, the report finds the record to be below expectations”. It “also asserts that there is a potential for the EU to take on a more significant international role”.
On September 20, 2012 the Vetenskapsrådet (VR, The Swedish Research Council) had a full day seminar in Stockholm on VR funded research on aspects of war. The seminar started with a presentation of the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) by its Director, Professor Peter Wallensteen. He demonstrated UCDP's different resources that can be found on its website (www.ucdp.uu.se) as well as the uses of UCDP in research. The seminar has now been broadcasted on the national Swedish TV channel Kunskapskanalen. The seminar can be seen here. Only in Swedish.
Isak Svensson, associate professor at the department, has recently published the book Ending Holy Wars: Religion and Conflict Resolution in Civil Wars. The book is part of the University of Queensland Press's series "New Approches to Peace and Conflict".
Ending Holy Wars: Religion and Conflict Resolution in Civil Wars is the first book that systematically tries to map out the religious dimensions of internal armed conflicts and explain the conditions under which religious dimensions impede peaceful settlement. It draws upon empirical work on global data, based on the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP), and complements this quantitative data with several smaller case studies (Sri Lanka, Philippines and Indonesia).
In Ending Holy Wars, Dr Svensson addresses a number of timely questions, including:
This important book shows how religious identities and incompatibilities influence the likelihood of agreements and the mechanisms through which parties and third-party mediators have been able to overcome religious obstacles to negotiated settlements.
The findings in Ending Holy Wars pave the way for a discussion on how conflict theory can better incorporate religious dimensions, as well as how policy can be designed to manage religious dimensions in armed conflicts.
How religion matters for contemporary conflicts
At a recent seminar, organized by the Peace Research Institute of Oslo (PRIO), 8 November 2012, Associate Professor Isak Svensson from the Department of Peace and Conflict Research and member of the East Asian Peace program made a presentation on the theme ’How can religious armed conflicts be settled peacefully?’ Isak Svensson presented on the basis of his forthcoming book Ending Holy Wars: Religion and Conflict Resolution and discussed the processes of peacefully resolving armed conflicts with religious dimensions, exemplifying with the recent peace process in the Philippines between the government and the MILF-guerilla. Other presentations were made by Professor Monica Duffy Toft from Oxford University and Ragnhild Nordås from PRIO.
For more information about the event visit PRIO's event webpage.
UCDP was introduced to the international diplomatic corps at a seminar in Europahuset, Stockholm, on October 16th. After a background introduction by Professor Peter Wallensteen Project Leaders Stina Högbladh (left) and Lotta Themnér (right) presented definitions and graphs for different types of conflict. They also demonstrated the free on-line access to the UCDP Conflict Encylopedia. Particular attention was paid to the new geographically coded conflict data. The following Q & A concerned among other things UCDP information on conflict prevention and peace agreements.
The seminar was organized by the Diplomatic Forum under the auspices of Uppsala University.
A seminar on 'Coordinating Actors in Complex Operations' was organised on September 20-21 2012 at the Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Civilian agencies, conventional armed forces, non-governmental organisations, private military actors, and many other international and local actors increasingly operate in the same space during complex operations. Their practices are intertwined, and some of their tasks overlap. However, their approaches, underlying logics, and patterns of interaction often diverge. Coordination is necessary, but it is extremely difficult to achieve. What explains coordination, and the lack thereof, among these actors? The workshop tried to answer some of these questions. Papers that were presented and discussed included authors such as Christopher Dandeker, Pascal Venneson, Damon Coletta, Linsay Cohn, Robert Egnell, Birthe Anders, Lisa Karlborg, Peter Haldén, Jan Ångström. The main output of the workshop will be a Special Issue in the journal "Small Wars and Insurgencies" edited by Chiara Ruffa. For any further detail or question, contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
Peter Wallensteen, Senior Professor of Peace and Conflict Research at the Department, participated in the meeting on Mediation at the Turkish UN mission in New York, September 27. The meeting took place on the occasion of handing over the manual for mediation that has been developed in the Mediation Support Unit to UN General Assembly. The meeting can be viewed on the UN Web TV.
The panel was chaired by the UN Deputy Secretary General Eliasson (also honorary doctor at Uppsala University and visiting professor of the Department, to the left in the picture); the UN mediator for Syria Lakhdar Brahimi; Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu; Finland's Foreign Minister Erkki Tuomioja; the new President of the UN General Assembly Vuc Jeremic; and Presidential adviser on the Peace Process in the Philippines, Teresita ‘Ging’ Quintos Deles. Peter Wallensteen (the only academic invited to participate) appears at about 55 minutes.
On 18 September the department officially inaugurated the new Rotary Center for International Studies in peace and conflict resolution at Uppsala University. This collaboration between the Rotary foundation and Uppsala University implies that every year 10-12 students will enroll in our two year MA program with prestigious scholarships from the Rotary foundation. Uppsala University was named a Rotary Peace Center in 2011 in stiff competition with 100 universities worldwide. The first class of Rotary Peace Fellows began their MA studies at the department this fall. Speaking at the official inauguration were John Osterlund, General Manager of the Rotary Foundation and Magnus Öberg, Head of Department. Also present at the inauguration were representatives from Rotary in Sweden, university staff, and students and employees from the department.
Ashok Swain, professor at the department, has recently published the book Understanding Emerging Security Challenges: Threats and Opportunities at Routledge.
The book offers an overview of emerging security challenges in the global environment in the post-Cold War era.
After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the subsequent shifting of international political environment, a new broader concept of security began to gain acceptance. This concept encompassed socio-economic-environmental challenges, such as resource scarcity and climate change, water-sharing issues, deforestation and forest protection measures, food and health security, and large population migration.
The book examines the causes and consequences of these emerging security threats, and retains a critical focus on evolving approaches to address these issues. The author attempts to develop a framework for sustainable security in a rapidly changing global political landscape, which seeks to bring states and societies together in a way that addresses weaknesses of the evolving international system. Moreover, through a detailed analysis of the emerging security issues and their pathways, the book further argues that the evolving processes not only pose critical challenges but also provide remarkable opportunity for cooperation and collaboration among and within various stakeholders.
This book will be of much interest to students of global security, war and conflict studies, peace studies and IR in general.
How can we understand the causes and consequences of contemporary conflict? What can be done to prevent the outbreak of new conflicts? Krig och fred: En introduktion till freds- och konfliktstudier (Studentlitteratur, 2012, in Swedish only) provides a broad introduction to peace and conflict studies. The book brings together some of the most prominent researchers in Sweden to present analytical perspectives on war and conflict, conflict resolution, peace building and development.
Uppsala University has contributed to the book in several ways. Kristine Höglund has, together with Karin Aggestam (Lund University) edited the book and authored two of the introductory chapters. Robert Egnell, Hanne Fjelde, Roland Kostic, Isak Svensson, Anders Themnér, and Jan Ångström have also contributed with chapters on issues such as the causes of war, negotiation and mediation, demobilization and security sector reform, and illustrative cases studies on the war in Afghanistan, and reconciliation in Bosnia-Hercegovina. For more information, see see https://www.studentlitteratur.se/#35748-01
Johan Brosché, researcher at the department, together with Professor Daniel Rothbart at George Mason University, has recently published the book Violent Conflict and Peacebuilding: The continuing crisis in Darfur at Routledge.
The book examines the continuing devastation in the Darfur region of Sudan, focusing on its causes and consequences from the perspective of the complementarity of distinct conflicts.
The crisis reached its peak in 2003–2004, when certain Arab militias joined forces with the Sudan armed forces against insurgent resistance movements. Engulfed in the tumult, many Darfurians have experienced systematic slaughter, sexual violence, and internal displacement on a massive scale. Although the violence has waned in recent years, the fighting continues to this day. The authors cast this crisis as a complex web of four distinct, yet interlacing, conflict types:
long-standing disputes between farmers and herders and between different herder communities
political struggles between the local elite leaders of the resistance movements, and those between traditional leaders (elders) and younger aspiring leaders
long-standing grievances of marginalized groups against those at the national centre of power
cross-border conflicts, primarily the proxy war waged between Chad and Sudan
the crisis in South Sudan is also examined through the lens of conflict complementarity.
This book will be of interest to students of African politics, genocide, political violence, ethnic conflict, war and conflict studies, peacebuilding and IR. To order the book click here: http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415689786/
The Swedish National Agency for Higher Education (Högskoleverket) has evaluated the quality of all educations in Peace and Conflict Studies in Sweden. In its final report (see www.hsv.se or www.antagning.se), it concludes that the education in Peace and Conflict Studies at Uppsala University is of high quality. In particular, the education at the Masters level is singled out and receives the highest quality mark available. “We know we have dedicated faculty, talented students and a collegial learning environment, but it is always good to get external validation of your performance. The results for the master’s program are particularly impressive, receiving the highest mark on all of the evaluated criteria,” says Head of Department Magnus Öberg. The student representative Anton Ingstedt comments: “It is always pleasing to have the time and energy spent by fellow students and staff acknowledged by an outside actor. It further reassures you that you are provided with excellent knowledge and the skills needed after graduation.” And director of studies, Jan Ångström, adds: “What is particularly gratifying is that the evaluation was made by fellow scholars at other universities in Sweden and the Nordic countries. That our peers consider our education to be of high or highest quality is very satisfying. It is recognition of all the hard work for many years from staff and students alike and it gives us great encouragement to continue to strive for the dual ambition of academic excellence and professional relevance in our education.”
A major research evaluation undertaken by Uppsala University gives high marks to the research at the Department. The evaluation, known as Quality and Renewal 2011 (KoF11), comprised two different parts. Firstly, a peer-review process, conducted by distinguished scholars of the international research community. Secondly, a bibliometric study of publications in the period 2007–2010.
The peer-review panel rates the Department’s research overall as being of “internationally high standard.” The panel identifies several strong areas, specifically pointing to the Uppsala Conflict Data Program as being of top quality and a University “flagship” noting that “ [t]here is no comparable data set internationally in this area.”
The panel also notes that Department faculty is highly successful in publishing their research:
“A publication list of this magnitude is an achievement for a department that also has teaching responsibilities. The success may be explained by several factors: adequate funding, organizational and intellectual coherence, careful recruiting, an organizational culture of ‘competitive collegiality’… and manageable teaching loads.”
The bibliometric component of the evaluation reinforces this picture. Of all the departments at Uppsala University, Peace and Conflict Research comes out as the best cited department with the highest proportion of highly cited articles. The bibliometric study, which includes publications from 2007-2010, shows that the articles published by the Department’s faculty are 230% more cited than the world average for the field (based on the mean normalized citation score, MNCS).
For the fourth time a celebration was arranged for the students that have successfully graduated from the Master Programme 'Politics and International Studies', with a specialization in peace and conflict studies. It was held on June 4, 2012 in the Main University Building in the presence of friends and families. During the graduation ceremony, Allard Duursma was awarded the Mats Hammarström prize for outstanding essays in Peace and Conflict Studies.
A few days earlier - on June 1 - the graduates from the Masters programme in Politics and International Studies, specialization Eurasia Studies celebrated that they successfully completed their programme. The ceremony was held in the library of the Uppsala Centre for Russian Studies in the presence of friends and families.
Three new Ph.D.s from the Department participated in the Promotion ceremony, in the Uppsala Main University Building, Friday June 1, 2012: Joakim Kreutz, Margareta Sollenberg and Katarina Engberg. The new doctors are here seen together with Peter Wallensteen, Dag Hammarskjöld Professor at the Department who had the role of Promotor for the Social Sciences during the ceremony.
Joakim Kreutz defended his thesis “Dismantling the Conflict Trap: Essays on Civil War Resolution and Relapse” and Margareta Sollenberg defended her thesis "A Scramble for Rents: Foreign Aid and Armed Conflict," both in the spring of 2012. Katarina Engberg defended her thesis “The EU´s Collective Use of Force: Exploring the Factors behind its First Military Operations” in the spring of 2011.
As Professor of Ethnic Studies with a special concern for Northern Ireland, John Darby played a significant role in developing the comparative study of peace processes. A result in the early 1990s was the creation of INCORE – Initiative on Conflict Resolution and Ethnicity – a unique cooperation between the UN University and the University of Ulster. It remains a vibrant center for teaching and research in peace and conflict studies. In 1999, John Darby took up the position as Professor of Comparative Ethnic Studies at the Kroc Institute, University of Notre Dame. The following years saw a number of books, articles and projects relating to ethnic conflicts as well as peace accords. During this time a closer collaboration was developed with the Department of Peace and Conflict Research at Uppsala University. The cooperation centered on the Peace Accords Matrix (PAM), initiated by John Darby, and now a functioning resource for research and policy. In the middle of this work John Darby acquired the illness to which he succumbed, on June 2, 2012.
Professor Peter Wallensteen: My first encounter with John Darby was in the middle of the 1980s as I took a group of concerned citizens to Northern Ireland to learn about the conflict. John’s insightful and nuanced comments made a lasting impression. It led me to invite him to participate as a teacher in an international training programme, which included a visit to the Åland Islands. The contacts have continued throughout the years. During the fall semesters we both spent at the Kroc Institute, our relationship as teachers and research collaborators deepened. His involvement as a third party in a number of conflicts provided added value. John’s pointed and well-formulated remarks could turn any meeting into a truly satisfying experience.
Kristine Höglund, Associate Professor: John Darby was one of the first professors I met when as a student I set out to do field work in Northern Ireland in the late 1990s. In spite of a busy schedule he took time to meet me at a train station to explain the intricacies of the peace process. This was the first of many encounters over the years. John’s research on the role of violence in peace processes was pioneering, and was a key source of inspiration for my PhD dissertation. As a young scholar I had the opportunity to be part of one of John’s book projects, and to benefit from his feedback, always delivered with a smile and with great theoretical and empirical insights. His generosity, support, and knowledge on peace processes will be deeply missed.
Security in Africa (PASA) for programme year 2012–2013 has just been completed. PASA is carried out by the Department of Peace and Conflict Research in cooperation with the African Centre for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes (ACCORD) and the Swedish consultancy firm Indevelop, and is financially supported by the Swedish Development Cooperation Agency (Sida). This is the second year the programme is given and it has brought a qualified group of participants from a range of inter-governmental and non-governmental regional organisations working in the field of peace and security on the African continent, such as the AU, the East African Community, IGAD, the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region, and WANEP, to Uppsala during the month of May. Topics such as conflict resolution, mediation, DDR processes, the African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA), and state building have been discussed. The group will meet again, to follow up and continue the discussions in South Africa in October 2012.
Left escalator (from the top, left): Peter Wallensteen, Erik Melander, Will Moore, Julian Wucherpfennig, Paul Huth, Allard Duursma, Ragnhild Nordås, Jeroen Smits, Tanja Ellingsen, Sabine Otto, Manuel Vogt, Lisa Hultman, Agatha Hultquist, Laura Grant, Michael Hechter, Right escalator (from the top, left): Erika Forsberg, John McCauley, Hanne Fjelde, Magnus Öberg, Kathleen Cunningham, Nils Weidmann, Andreas Wimmer, Luke Condra, Alma Gottlieb-McHale, David Cunningham, Karin Dyrstad, Joakim Kreutz, Christian Davenport, Johanna Birnir, Monica Toft, Erin Jenne
On 26-28 April, about thirty world leading scholars on ethnicity and conflict attended a workshop hosted by the Department of Peace and Conflict Research. The overall aim of the workshop was to discuss various issues in the collection and analysis of data relating to ethnicity and conflict. During the workshop, some of the major data collection projects in the field presented their projects and most recent extensions, including the Minorities at Risk project, the Zürich-based GROWup project, and the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP). Two expert panels provided insights on what we know about ethnicity and conflict and prospects for future developments. In presentations of individual research papers, a whole range of themes were covered, such as theoretical questions relating to e.g. the role of the state and religion’s relationship with ethnicity, and methodological issues, such as disaggregation of data and compatibility across datasets.
Harvard Professor Steven Pinker gave a lecture in the Aula Magna of Uppsala University's Main Building on Thursday March 15. The topic built on his new book, The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined, and documented the decline in violence, in terms of wars, deaths in war and other types of violence, such as torture and lynchings. Part of his presentation built on information from the Uppsala Conflict Data Program.
Dr. Pinker is a Professor of Psychology and his explanations for the decline did not only include the importance of a responsive state but also normative changes in society. Two researchers, Peace Research Dr. Peter Haldén and History Dr. Karin Hassan Jansson commented on his ideas. The event was moderated by Professor Peter Wallensteen, and it was opened by Vice Rector Ulf Danielsson of Uppsala University and Carl Hvenmark Nilsson from the Uppsala Association of International Affairs.
For the presentation and the panel debate, see http://media.medfarm.uu.se/play/kanal/1/
Visiting Professor and Honorary Doctor Jan Eliasson has been appointed by the UN Secretary General as his Deputy, Mr. Ban Ki-Moon announced on March 2. Eliasson will deal with matters on mediation, conflict resolution as well as development issues. He takes up his new duties on July 1 and will be based in New York.
Eliasson has a long-standing relation to the Department. He has repeatedly been a Visiting Professor in the Department. His first lecture was in 1988, most recently he talked to the Master program Tuesday, February 28 on mediation, the very topic that now will be part of his UN duties.
- Jan Eliasson will be the highest official from Sweden in the UN system since Dag Hammarskjöld, says Professor Peter Wallensteen, adding that: "Eliasson is very positive to academic analysis and sees the value of research in furthering peace, development and human rights. His remarkable teaching skills will come in handy in his new job, where the ability to convince is an important asset. We look forward to learning more from him in the future on the UN and its operations."
The third edition of Peter Wallensteen’s globally used Understanding Conflict Resolution is just out. It presents the issues building on scholarship, not the least from the Uppsala Department. This edition updates the previous ones. It includes events until the killing of Osama bin Laden in May 2011, recent UCDP data and newest research findings. It also has suggested readings.
Having used the previous edition Professor Patrick M. Regan at University of Binghamton says that “The newest edition expands coverage to conflict that are most salient to today’s students and builds on new scholarship about the role of peace agreements in securing long term peace”. Thus it “makes teaching these core ideas rather easy”.
Wallensteen says this volume uses the same structure as previous editions with a theoretical part, an analysis of three types of conflict, and sections on regional and international dimensions, where matters of mediation, sanctions and enforcement are presented.
The book is particularly useful on Master and PhD levels, but also works as encyclopedia on conflict resolution, for instance through an elaborate index.
For a recent review see Times Higher Education (THE)
While all other East Asian countries have seen a decline in the number and intensity of armed conflict, Thailand has since 2001 had an opposite trend with several thousand people being killed in the country’s “deep south,” where Malay Muslim rebels are engaged in a conflict over territory. Thailand has also engaged in a violent international border dispute with Cambodia over the temple Preah Vihear, and more than 90 people were killed in the streets of Bangkok in a conflict over government with the Red Shirt movement in April-May 2010.
The possible reasons for the Thai exception were discussed at a workshop organized by the East Asian Peace program in Bangkok 9 – 11 March, after which two of the participants, Anders Engvall and Isak Svensson, travelled on a fact finding mission to Pattani in the “Deep South.”
Several draft papers and articles were discussed at the workshop, which also listened to a presentation by Professor Duncan McCargo, a leading expert on the conflict in south Thailand, entitled “Further reflections on the Southern Thailand conflict”.
The workshop was attended by the program’s core group consisting of program leader Stein Tönnesson, Erik Melander, Elin Bjarnegård, Isak Svensson and Timo Kivimäki as well as research associate Anders Engvall (an economist who has specialised on Thailand and is a fluent Thai speaker), research assistant Susanne Schaftenaar, and Chair of the East Asian Peace program’s Advisory Board Peter Wallensteen.
The participants additionally partook in a conference organized on 9 March at Chulalongkorn University on “Democracy and Crisis in Thailand,” with intense discussions about the role of the monarchy in Thailand. This conference was organised by Erik Kuhonta of McGill University (Montreal) together with several Thai partners.
When Thomas Ohlson joined the Department’s Ph.D. program in 1991 he brought with him an unusual background and special skills. He had just returned from Mozambique where he and his wife Margareta (deceased in 2000) had been heavily engaged in development work. Thomas was the head of the Department for Strategic Studies within the Centro de Estudos Africanos, Eduardo Mondlane University, in Maputo for three years. Before this he had been the project leader at SIPRI, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, for the arms trade and arms production research teams, in all spending seven years at the institute. His academic training was as an economist.
With his signum energy he not only produced a dissertation that opened up new methodological paths in the Department, Power Politics and Peace Policies. Intra-State Conflict Resolution in Southern Africa (1998) with Professor I. William Zartman as the opponent (external examiner). At the same time he was directing the Advanced Program on Conflict Resolution (financed by Sida, called PACS) and produced a book with Professor Stephen J Stedman, The New Is Not Yet Born. Conflict Resolution in Southern Africa (in 1994), a work that has become widely read. Together with his work in Mozambique and at SIPRI this made him a Docent (2000) and Professor (2005) in record time. His work since then has spanned many of the Department’s activities: Teaching in the Masters program, being an engaged Ph.D. supervisor; taking charge of Ph.D. admissions process; leading the Claude Ake Visiting Chair Program (with the Nordic Africa Institute); developing the partnership with Accord in South Africa; as well as directing the sequel to PACS called TOPS and involved in the setting up of its present version, PASA.
His major scholarly work was outlined in the seminal article ‟Understanding Causes of War and Peace‟, European Journal of International Relations, (2008) which also was used to organize the manuscript for the book From Intra-State War to Durable Peace. Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Africa After the Cold War (Dordrecht: Republic of Letters Publishers), which has been completed and is soon to come from the printers. Unfortunately too late for him to see.
An exceptional teacher, an engaged researcher, a considerate colleague, a great human being, the loving husband of Liana Lopes and the dedicated father of Joel and Joakim has left us on April 14, 2012 at the age of 58. His memory will long be cherished.
Peter Wallensteen and Magnus Öberg
Prorector Anders Malmberg presents the official statement for awarding the Rudbeck medal, while Rector Eva Åkesson and laureate Professor Peter Wallensteen listen, at the Uppsala University Conferment Ceremony (Promotionen in Swedish), January 27, 2012.
Peter Wallensteen, holder of the Dag Hammarskjöld Chair at the Department of Peace and Conflict Research and Richard. G Starmann, Sr., Research Professor of Peace Studies at University of Notre Dame, USA, has been awarded the Rudbeck medal of 2011. It was given out at the Doctoral Conferment Ceremony, January 27, 2012. This medal was established by Uppsala University in 2002 in memory of Professor Olof Rudbeck Sr. 300 years after his passing, in order to award outstanding research achievements attained at Uppsala University.
The official statement reads: 'His internationally acknowledged research has among other topics focused on peaceful conflict resolution through mediation. During several decades he has been at the forefront in developing the Department of Peace and Conflict Research at Uppsala University to a leading international research milieu and he is also the founder of the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP), which maps armed conflicts and peace agreements on a global scale.
Participants of the EAP First Annual Conference:
From front to left: Miriam Coronel-Ferrer, Wang Dong, Hoang Anh Tuan, Wang Yizhou, Zou Keyuan, Peter Wallensteen (behind), Isak Svensson, Moon Chung-in, Susanne Schaftenaar, Thommy Svensson, Stein Tønnesson, Erik Melander. Standing from left: Mei Shanshan, Jong Kun Choi, Tang Chih-Mao, Ryu Yongwook, Anders Engvall, Bates Gill, Thomas Nielsen, Robert S. Ross, Mikael Weissmann, Elin Bjarnegård, Timo Kivimäki, Börje Ljunggren.
The East Asian Peace (EAP) program has passed its first year. Among our several publications, the 2011 highlight is Isak Svensson and Mathilda Lindgren’s article ‘From Bombs to Banners,’ which appeared in Security Dialogue. This article adds a plausible explanatory factor that we did not consider when we submitted our program proposal to Riksbankens Jubileumsfond in 2010. We thought only about state behaviour. However, we did not restrict our research proposal to international peace, but also included internal or ‘civil peace’ in what we set out to explain. Civil peace does not only depend on governments, but also on rebel behaviour. What Svensson and Lindgren suggest is that there has been a change over time in rebel behaviour from rural guerrilla struggles to city-based un-armed revolts: from ‘bombs to banners’ or from ‘People’s War to People Power.’ This has now become an essential part of the EAP research agenda. Another strength in Svensson and Lindgren’s article is its comparative framework. It speaks not just of East Asia, but asks if there is a global trend away from armed violence in rebel behaviour. Just as the article went to press, events in the Arab world put the thesis to a test. Tunisia confirmed the trend. Egypt too, at first. Libya and Syria did not. Svensson and Tönnesson will follow up with a paper for the International Studies Association convention in San Diego in April 2012, comparing rebellions in East Asia and the Middle East.
Other EAP achievements in 2011 were to organize the first Annual Conference in September, establish Susanne Schaftenaar’s program office at Uppsala University, enter into contractual relations with all of the program’s 22 researchers and research associates as well as the eight members of the Advisory Board, and engage in heated scholarly discussions over hypotheses that shall prove their value in the coming years. We also organized two panels on the ‘capitalist peace’ at the AAS-ICAS convention in Honolulu in May, where program leader Stein Tönnesson proudly received the 2011 ICAS book prize in the Humanities for his Vietnam 1946: How the War Began.