Causes of Peace – The Botswana, Zambia and Malawi “Zone of Peace”

Project Leader

Kristine Höglund, Professor

Project Period


Other Project Participants

Johan Brosché, Assistant Professor

Project Description

Africa is the world’s most conflict-affected region with one third of all inter- and intra-state conflicts since 1946 taking place on the continent. Moreoevr, since the end of the Cold War Africa has experienced 75% of the world’s conflicts between non-state groups and 90% of all fatalities in violence against civilians ( This bleak picture is not all-embracing, however. Surrounded by seven neighbors plagued by conflicts, Botswana, Malawi and Zambia constitute a ‘Zone of Peace’ spared from violent conflict since they gained independence half a decade ago.

This project studies the causes of peace in Botswana, Malawi and Zambia. It is based on an understanding of peace as a function of case-specific factors as well as general risk-reducing conditions. It seeks to understand the forms of peace which has emerged in each of the countries and identifies factors at both the domestic, regional and international level. The findings from the project are relevant for understanding conflict prevention and the conditions underpinning durable peace.

Conference Participation (selected)

"50 Years of Peace in Zambia." Presentation by Johan Brosché held at the annual meeting of Swedish-Zambian Association, 15 march 2015, Fredens Hus, Uppsala.

“Tracing the Roots of Violent Electoral Competition: Legacies of Ethnic Politics in Kenya and Zambia”, by Johan Brosché, Hanne Fjelde and Kristine Höglund. Paper presented at ISA’s 56th Annual Conference, February 18-21, 2015, New Orleans, Louisiana.

“The Diversity of Peace and War in Africa” by Johan Brosché. Paper presented at ISA’s 56th Annual Conference, February 18-21, 2015, New Orleans, Louisiana.

“Half a Century of Peace: Exploring Peace in Zambia from a Local Governance Perspective” by Johan Brosché. Presented at Nordic Africa Days, 26-27 September 2014, Uppsala, Sweden.


Brosché, Johan, Kristine Höglund, & Sebastian van Baalen, 2017. ”Jasaffären i Botswana strider mot Sveriges mål” Svenska Dagbladet, March 23. Updated and republished in Mänsklig säkerhet, June 20.

Johan Brosché & Kristine Höglund, 2017. “A “Zone of Peace” in Southern Africa: Exploring the Causes of Peace." Peace News, March 11.

Johan Brosché and Kristine Höglund, 2016. ”Hur ska vi förstå det fredliga Malawi?” (How Should We Understand Malawi’s Peace?). Mänsklig säkerhet (Human Security), published online 2016-02-12,

Brosché, Johan and Kristine Höglund, 2015. "The Diversity of Peace in Africa." In SIPRI Yearbook 2015. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Related Publications

Höglund, Kristine, and Mimmi Söderberg Kovacs, 2010. “Beyond the Absence of War: The Diversity of Peace in Post-Settlement Societies.” Review of International Studies 36(2): 367-90.

Opitz Christian, Hanne Fjelde, and Kristine Höglund, 2013. “Including Peace: The Influence of Electoral Management Bodies on Electoral Violence.Journal of Eastern African Studies (7)4: 713-731.

Brosché Johan, and Maria Nilsson, 2005. “Zambian Refugee Policy – Security, Repatriation and Local Integration” Minor Field Study No.24. Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University.

Main Financial Support

Vetenskapsrådet, U-FORSK (The Swedish Research Council)

Related Projects

Electing Violence? The Causes of Electoral Violence in Africa

East Asian Peace Program

Demagogues of Hate or Shepherds of Peace? Why ‘Warlord Democrats’ (Re)securitize Wartime Identities

Useful Links


Uppsala Conflict Data Program