Department of Peace and Conflict Research

Somalia

Recent Sanctions-related UN Resolutions  

10 November 2016 – With Resolution 2317 the Security Council decides to renew the provisions set out in resolution 2142 (2014) stating that the arms embargo on Somalia shall not apply deliveries of weapons, ammunition or military equipment or the provision of advice, assistance or training, intended solely for the development of the Security Forces of the Federal Government of Somalia to provide security for the Somali people.

The authorization, set out in resolution 2182 (2014) for Member States to inspect vessels, to and from Somalia, which they have reasonable grounds to believe are carrying charcoal from Somalia in violation of the charcoal ban, is renewed. 

9 November 2016 With resolution 2316 the Security Council decides that the arms embargo on Somalia imposed 1992 by resolution 733 does not apply to supplies of weapons and military equipment or the provision of assistance destined for the sole use of Member States, international, regional, and sub-regional organizations undertaking measures in the fight against piracy and armed robbery at sea off the coast of Somalia.

12 November 2014 – With Resolution 2184 the Security Council decides that the arms embargo on Somalia imposed by resolution 733 (1992) and further elaborated on in resolution 1425 (2002) does not apply to supplies of weapons or assistance destined for the sole use of Member States, international, regional and sub-regional organizations undertaking measures in the fight against piracy and armed robbery at sea off the coast of Somalia. 

24 October 2014 – With Resolution 2182 the Security Council decides to renew the provisions set out in resolution 2142 (2014) until October 2015 and that the arms embargo on Somalia shall not apply to the deliveries of weapons or military equipment or the provision of advice, assistance or training, intended solely for the development of the Security Forces of the Federal Government of Somalia to provide security for the Somali people.

The mandate of the Somalia and Eritrea Monitoring Group is extended until 30 November 2015.

5 March 2014 – With Resolution 2142 the Security Council decides that until 25 October 2014 the arms embargo on Somalia shall not apply to the deliveries of weapons or military equipment or the provision of advice, assistance or training, intended solely for the development of the Security Forces of the Federal Government of Somalia to provide security for the Somali people. It is the responsibility of the Government of Somalia to notify the Committee in advance of any such permitted delivery. Assisting Member States can make the notification of assistance in consultation with the Government of Somalia.

18 November 2013 – With Resolution 2125 the Security Council decides that the arms embargo imposed in 1992 (SCR 733), and further developed in 2002 (SCR 1425), shall not apply to supply of weapons and military equipment destined for the sole use of Member States, international, regional and sub-regional organizations undertaking measures in the fight against piracy and armed robbery at sea off the coast of Somalia.

6 July 2013/24 July – With Resolutions 2093 and 2111 the Security Council decides that the arms embargo imposed in 1992 (SCR 733) shall not apply to supply of weapons and military equipment supporting the Security Forces of the Federal Government of Somalia, the AMISOM strategic partners and UN personnel, including UNSOM. Weapons used by the Security Forces of the Federal Government of Somalia may not be made available to anyone outside of their service.

With Resolution 2011 it is also decided that the arms embargo on Eritrea shall not apply to supplies of non-lethal equipment solely for humanitarian or protective use or to protective clothing exported to Eritrea by UN personnel for their personal use only.

The mandate of the Somalia and Eritrea Monitoring Group is extended to 25 October 2014.

On 22 February 2012 – with Resolution 2036 the Security Council decides to impose measures to prevent the export of characoal from Somalia.

The Monitoring Group’s mandate is expanded to assess the impact of the characol ban in its Final Report.

19 July 2011 –With Resolution 2002 the Security Council decides that measures designated by the Committee under resolution 1844 (2008) shall apply to individuals and entities who have violated the arms embargo. The mandate of the monitoring group is extended 12 months. 

22 December 2010 – With Resolution 1964 the Security Council decides to authorize the member States of the African Union to maintain the deployment until 30 September 2011 of AMISOM, which shall be authorized to take all necessary measures to carry out its existing mandate as set out in resolution 1772 (2007).

28 January 2010 – The Security council decides, with resolution 1910, to authorize the member states of the African Union to maintain AMISOM until 31 January 2011.

26 May 2009 - With Resolution 1872 the Security Council decides to authorize of the Member States of the African Union to maintain AMISOM until 31 January 2010 to carry out its existing mandate.

16 January 2009 - With Resolution 1863 the Security Council decides to renew the authorization of the Member States of the African Union to maintain AMISOM in Somalia for a further period of six months.

18 December 2008 - With Resolution 1853 the Security Council decides that the mandate of the Monitoring Group is extended for another 12 months and its mandate regarding listing of individuals and compliance of the measures is stipulated in the resolution.

20 November 2008 -With Resolution 1844 the Security Council decides that financial assets shall be frozen for individuals or entities, designated by the Committee, acting in violation of the complete arms embargo, which is reaffirmed in the resolution. It is also decided that member states take necessary measures to prevent supply, sale or transfer of weapons and military equipment to such individuals or entities. The mandate of the Committee is expanded to monitor the implementation of the arms embargo, to designate individuals or entities violating the embargo and to update the list regularly. It is also decided that member states shall provide the Committee detailed information about individuals and statement of case when proposing names for listing. The Permanent Missions of the country where a listed is believed to be located shall be notified of any delisting.

19 August 2008 - With Resolution 1831 the Security Council decides to renew the authorization of the Member States of the African Union to maintain AMISOM in Somalia for a further period of six months.

29 April 2008 – With resolution 1811 the Security Council decides to extend the mandate of the Monitoring group for another six months and requests the Secretary-General to take necessary administrative measures to, in consultation with the Committee, re-establish the group for another six months and appoint new members. SC decides that the Monitoring Groups shall continue to work closely with the Committee on recommendations of additional measures to improve compliance with the arms embargo. Two weeks later with resolution 1814, the Security Council requests the Committee to within 60 days recommend specific targeted sanctions against individuals or entities.

20 February 2008 – With resolution 1801 the AU mission AMISOM for another six months. The mission is authorized to provide security for key infrastructure and contribute to the security conditions for the provision of humanitarian assistance. Member States of the African Union are urged to contribute to AMISOM to facilitate the full withdrawal of other foreign forces from Somalia and to provide financial resources, personnel, equipment and services for full deployment of the mission.

20 August 2007 - The Security Council decides that the AU mission AMISOM, authorized earlier this year, should be maintained for a further period of six months. Member States in the region should continue to fully comply with the arms embargo to contribute to Somalia’s peace and security.  The Committee established in 1992 is requested to report to the Council, within 60 days of the adoption of this resolution, on possible targeted measures that might be taken in support of the arms embargo. See UNSCR 1772

23 July 2007 – The mandate of the Monitoring Group is extended for a period of six months and the Secretary General requested to re-establish the group and appoint new members. The Security Council reaffirms that the Government and all States in the region and regional organizations cooperate fully with the Monitoring Group and encourages the donor community and member states of the region to ensure the effective implementation of the arms embargo. See UNSCR 1766

20 February 2007 – Through the adoption of resolution 1744 the Security Council decides that the arms embargo shall not apply to supplies of arms and related equipment and services intended for the AU mission AMISOM. The mission was earlier authorized by the same resolution. Exempted from the embargo are also supplies and assistance that aid in developing the security sector institutions, when in accordance with the decisions of the Committee and with the political process facilitated by the Transitional Federal Institutions. It is demanded that all member states comply with the embargo or risk facing targeted measures.

6 December 2006 – The Security Council decides through resolution 1725 that the arms embargo should not apply to members of IGAD (League of Arab States and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development) and AU (African Union) that establish a protection and training mission in Somalia.

29 November 2006 – With resolution 1724 the Security Council condemns the increase in the transfers of arms to Somalia. It is requested that the Monitoring Group be re-established within thirty days, for a period of six months. The group is to continue its tasks, amongst which is to update the list of individuals and entities that violate the arms embargo. It is hinted that measures can be taken by the Council in relation to such actors in the future.

10 May 2006 – With resolution 1676 (2006) the Security Council decides that the Sanctions Committee is to be re-established within thirty days. The Monitoring Group is to continue its work for another six months with the mandate as established through resolution 1587 (2005). The Monitoring Group is for instance mandated to recommend ways of strengthening the implementation of the arms embargo and to suggest improvements in the capacity of neighbouring states to meet the challenges of implementing sanctions.

14 October 2005 - The Security Council decides through resolution 1630 (2005) that the Monitoring Group, originally described in resolution 1558 (2004), is to be re-established within thirty days after 14 October 2005 for a period of six months. Although sanctions against Somalia have been in effect since the establishment of resolution 733 (1992) the Security Council underscores that the arms embargo still need to be in effect and enforced and that continuing violations of the arms embargo must be investigated in order to improve the security situation in Somalia.

11 April 2005 - Despite the arms embargo in place against Somalia since 1992, arms are still reported to flow into the country. Therefore the UN Secretary-General has appointed four experts as members of the re-established Monitoring Group to investigate the implementation and the violations of the embargo, for a period of 6 months, as decided by the Security Council. See UNSCR 1587

Renewed UN monitoring group for the arms embargo on Somalia

17 August 2004, the Security Council has decided to extend the mandate of the monitoring group for a further period of six months. The mandate is to investigate the continuing violations of the 12-year-old arms embargo. The Council said they would give consideration to the recent report from the monitoring group (document S/2004/604) to improve compliance with the embargo. See UNSCR 1558

16 December 2003, the Security Council today decided to establish an expert group to make recommendations on tightening the arms embargo against Somalia. The expert group is to investigate breaches of the embargo, especially the flow of ammunition and small arms into the country. The group will have a six month mandate. A previous panel of experts found in a report last year that the arms embargo against Somalia is repeatedly being broken and that this undermines the attempts to restore peace and stability in the country. The UN arms embargo was put in place in 1992.

7 November 2003, new monitoring report from six-month expert panel mission to Somalia. The report from the expert panel on Somalia concludes that the arms embargo is repeatedly being broken. The monitoring "shows a disturbing picture of a continuous influx of small quantities of weapons and ammunition that feed the local arms markets and faction leaders warehouse in Somalia." For the report see document S/2003/1035

Background

Security Council resolution 733 (1992), adopted in January 1992, imposed a comprehensive arms embargo against Somalia.  Resolution 751 (1992) called for the establishment of a Committee of the Security Council to monitor the implementation of the arms embargo.  Resolution 1356 (2001), adopted in June 2001, provided for exemptions to the measures imposed in resolution 733 (1992) by allowing for the import of non-lethal military equipment intended solely for humanitarian or protective use. 

On 22 July 2002 the Security Council, by adopting resolution 1425, decided to establish a three-member panel of experts for a period of six months to study the violations of the Somalia arms embargo imposed in 1992. The panel is to be based in Nairobi for a period of six months. Resolution 1425 (2002-07-22) is available in the UNSC list. The Panel submitted its first report to the Security Council, S/2003/223, on 25 March 2003.

8 April 2003 the Security Council decided to re-establish the Panel investigating Somalia arms embargo violations for a further period of six months, through resolution 1474 (2003).

On 8 April 2003 the Security Council decided to re-establish the Panel investigating Somalia arms embargo violations for a further period of six months, through resolution 1474 (2003).

20 August 2003, A mid-term report was presented to the Security Council of experts investigating the arms embargo against Somalia, in effect since 1992.